Diabetes is a disease that occurs when the body can’t control blood glucose levels properly. Normally, the digestive tract breaks down food into glucose, a form of sugar. After being absorbed, it is released into the blood. The hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas, stimulates cells to absorb glucose from the bloodstream and use it for energy.
Normal fasting blood glucose range is 70-110mg/dl and 2 hours after meal is 70-140 mg/dl. In diabetes there are fluctuations in this normal range. There are 2 types of diabetes in Men i.e. Diabetes type 1 and Diabetes type 2
Diabetes type 1- Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune disorder which leads to the death of insulin producing pancreatic cells thus resulting in excess blood glucose levels. The signs and symptoms of this type of diabetes appear in juveniles or young adults.
Diabetes type2- Type 2 Diabetes results from two reasons, either body cellare unable to properly utilize insulin or there is insufficient insulin present in the body. This type of diabetes generally occurs after 40 years of age.
Both types are bad for many reasons. High glucose levels damage nerve and blood vessels, leading to heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, and gum infections. Advanced type 2 diabetes can result in blindness and the need to amputate limbs that no longer get adequate circulation. Hereditary, Sedentary lifestyle, lack of exercise and unhealthy eating habits are correlated with the occurrence of type 2 Diabetes.
5 Early Signs of Diabetes-
1) Polydipsia- It is means increased thirst. In Diabetes there is increased glucose concentration in the blood stream resulting in raised osmolarity which signals for higher water intake by body to balance the osmolarity of extracellular fluids. Polydipsia in-turn triggers another symptom i.e. polyuria which is increased frequency of urination to flush out excess fluid and maintain extracellular fluid balance.
2) Polyuria- It means increased urination. Patients with diabetes have polydipsia i.e. increased thirst and water intake which triggers kidneys to flush out excess fluid resulting in frequent urination. Patients with diabetes often complain of nocturnal polyuria i.e. frequent night urination.
3) Polyphagia-It means increased hunger. Polyuria leads to loss of excess sugar from the body which signals for increased intake of glucose to refurbish the loss. This reflects as raised appetite. Diabetics areadvised to eat healthy snacks every 2 hours to keep the body cells nourished and avoid hunger pangs and keep up the working efficiency.
4) Delayed healing of wounds- Raised blood glucose level provides favourable condition for the microorganisms to nourish and multiply in the host body, paired with this;compromised body immunityresults in delayed wound healing and infections control. Reduced nerve sensitivity paired with non- healing wounds pose big problem for diabetics. Diabetics are thus advised to be cautious about their wounds especially around the toes and feet as that can rapidly develop into non healing diabetic ulcers.
5) Extreme fatigue-Increased blood glucose level results in thickening of blood which slows down the blood flow resulting in reduced nutrient supply to the cells leading to the feeling of fatigue and extreme tiredness.
High blood glucose level also causes inflammation of blood vessel wall which triggers the activity of monocytes in brain leading to feeling of extreme fatigue. Fatigue may be mental or physical. Mental fatigue reflects as depression and increased response time while physical fatigue results in compromised ability to perform daily chores.